Colon cancer treatment is primarily determined by the melanoma stage (amount), but some other factors also can play a role. Surgery is usually the primary first treatment for individuals with colon cancer that has not scattered to distant sites. Chemotherapy can also be used as adjuvant treatment after surgery. Most adjuvant treatments last about six months.
Strategies for treating colon cancer by stage
The best, most efficient treatment plan can be created by first identifying the stage (degree) of the disease. The stage will influence how and when different therapy modalities are applied.
Early disease stage
The localized illness affects about 39% of colon cancer patients. Surgery is the most typical treatment for colon cancer in its early stages. Following surgery, chemotherapy may also be given to some patients with early-stage illnesses. Ninety percent of individuals with locally advanced colon cancer survive five years.
Usually, the liver is where colon cancer metastasizes when it does. It may also extend to distant lymph nodes, the peritoneum, the lining of an abdominal cavity, the lungs, the brain, and the peritoneum. The five-year survival rate for people with this late-stage illness is 14%. The five-year survival percentage for colorectal cancer patients has progressed to nearby organs or tissue, and local lymph nodes are 71%.
Surgery and chemotherapy may be employed if colorectal cancer only spreads to adjacent lymph nodes and not other body areas. Chemo might be used as a primary treatment when the illness has progressed to distant locations, mainly if surgery seems unlikely to be successful in curing the malignancy. Surgery may be done to treat the condition or lengthen the patient’s life if the illness has spread to a few distant tumors.
During a colonoscopy, polyps are frequently removed safely. Therapeutic endoscopists, a subset of gastroenterologists with specialized training, can remove certain massive polyps without surgery. Your doctor might have marked your polypectomy (polyp removal) spot with a special ink during the colonoscopy if the polyps were large. Making a mark there can be helpful in later monitoring colonoscopies.
Surgical resection, which entails surgically removing the malignancy, is the preferred treatment for colon cancer. To ensure that your postoperative bowel functioning is normal or nearly normal, surgery is undertaken to remove the malignancy entirely and, if feasible, repair the gut. The surgeon performs a resection, which involves removing the colon’s cancerous piece and a tiny amount of healthy tissue surrounding it. Additionally, the surgeon could take out lymph nodes and examine them for malignancy. There is no need for additional treatment if the tumor is excised after surgery and is found to be an early-stage condition.